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Many can also be used as adverbs. Some of the most common are:
|ablow belowaboot aboutabuin above
aff o from
afore before, prior to
anent alongside, regarding (in a letter) aroon around
|ayont beyondben within a housebi wey o via
by by, past
doon by down there
furth out of a town, country etc
in aneith under, underneath in maugre/spite o despite
in o inside
inby within, inside a building
intae within, inside
|o ofon onontae onto
oot out (of)
ootby out-of- doors, outlying
throu through, during
Many of these can be used as compounds e.g. intil, inower, ootower (outside), in o, aff o, naraboots etc. Note the related hereawa (hereabouts), therrawa (thereabouts), yonderaboots (there or thereabouts).
The positioning of prepositions such as aff, oot is sometimes different from English equivalents
He took aff his bunnet (He took his cap off)
She humphed oot the bucket (She hauled the bin out)
Otherwise use is broadly similar to English although there are some variations especially related to nouns e.g. think on (think about), merrit on/wi (married to), beelin at (angry with), ower the windae (out of the window), in a praisent (as a present), wyte on (wait for), cry on (call to), feart for (afraid of), mind o (remember), lippen tae (depend on), speir at (ask, request), get oot the road (out of the way), ask for (enquire after someone’s health), lauch on (laugh at).
Needs and wants don’t take tae but use a past participle instead.
The wife wants taen hame (My wife would like to be taken home)
Thon hoose needs pentin (That house requires to be painted).
Prepositions are idiosyncratic and illogical in most language and therefore quite difficult to learn. The best way is to ‘collect’ examples.
This highly idiomatic use of prepositions to greatly extend the meaning of verbs, although of course a feature of standard and colloquial English, is very common in Scots and to some extent belies the claim that Scots has a restricted vocabulary.
A few other examples are
|come roon recovergie in tae confessgit on be friendly
git thegither assemble
git gaun rile
gae agin argue
gae wrang lose one’s way
tak tent pay attention
|gae efter chasetak efter resemblepit doon for register
pit oot advertise
pit by save
be pit oot offended
pit on pretend.